Thus, the United States, which had been hostile to all military alliances for a century and a half, had become entangled in the largest system of alliances in the history of the world and, at its peak, included forty-four allies: twenty American republics, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, thirteen European NATO nations, Japan, and seven Asian nations (including Iraq). For similar reasons, it proved impossible to sign a joint peace treaty that included both Japan and the Soviet Union, despite the efforts of John Foster Dulles in 1947. Although official surrender ceremonies were held aboard the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945, it was not until September 8, 1951 that the United States and forty-eight other countries concluded a peace agreement with Japan, the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Although the Soviet Union attended the San Francisco meeting, it abstained. The Senate gave its approval with reservation on March 20, 1952 by 66 votes to 10. As soon as World War II ended, U.S. officials tried to give Pan-Americanism a new form. They began with a provisional alliance excluding Argentina, which was signed in March 1945 in Chapultepec, Mexico. The signatories undertook to consult each other in the event of aggression or threat of aggression. At the Inter-American Conference “for the Maintenance of Peace and Hemispheric Security” in Rio de Janeiro (August 15 to September 2, 1947), the twenty-one republics (with the exception of Nicaragua, absent) signed a treaty of mutual inter-American assistance that contained essentially the same provisions as the Chapultepec Pact. Sanctions could be collectively agreed against aggressors. Finally, on April 30, 1948, the Charter of the Organization of American States was signed, making the Pan American Union a regional organization within the framework of the United Nations. The United States did not ratify the Charter until June 1951.
Despite their innovative elements, these alliances invariably fell within the traditional perspective of the Monroe Doctrine. The same was not true for later alliances. In Wilson`s vision of the post-war world, all nations (not just the losers) would reduce their armed forces, preserve the freedom of the seas, and join an international peace organization called the League of Nations. But his allies dismissed much of his plan as naïve and overly idealistic. The French, in particular, wanted Germany to pay a high price for the war, including loss of territory, disarmament, and payment of reparations, while the British saw Wilson`s plan as a threat to their supremacy in Europe. . New peace treaty, signed in Paris on 10 February 1947, which re-established the borders of Trianon, with a correction in favour of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. It imposed a $300 million reparations law on Hungary and reduced its armed forces. The implementation of the provisions of the Treaty should . The Treaty of Versailles had also included a Pact for the League of Nations, the international organization that Woodrow Wilson had envisioned to preserve peace between the nations of Europe and the world.
But the U.S. Senate ultimately refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles because of its opposition to the League, which seriously weakened the organization without U.S. involvement or military support. The Atlantic Pact of 4 April 1949, which created NATO, was a reaction to the Cold War. The five European signatories to the Brussels Treaty of Alliance (17 March 1948) entrust the French Prime Minister (Georges Bidault) and the English Secretary of State (Ernest Bevin) with the task of asking the US Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, to ensure his country`s participation. The need to defend Western Europe seemed so critical that on June 11, 1948, the Senate passed the Vandenberg Resolution by a vote of 64 to 4, authorizing the president to forge peace alliances outside the Western Hemisphere. This represented a break with previous U.S. foreign policy, which had avoided alliances since the late eighteenth century.
The negotiations were extended because it was necessary to wait for the result of the presidential election, in which Harry S. Truman was the winner. Paris Peace Conference: None of the defeated nations intervened, and even the smallest Allied powers had little to say. Formal peace negotiations began in Paris on January 18, 1919, the anniversary of the coronation of German Emperor Wilhelm I at the end of the German-French War in 1871. The First World War had raised painful memories of this conflict – which ended with German unification and the conquest of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from the France – and now the France intended to make Germany pay. The Senate opposition invoked Article 10 of the treaty, which dealt with collective security and the League of Nations. This article, opponents argued, transferred war powers from the U.S. government to the League Council. The opposition came from two groups: the “Irreconcilables,” who refused to join the League of Nations under any circumstances, and the “Reservists,” led by the chairman of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, Henry Cabot Lodge, who wanted to make changes before ratifying the treaty. Although President Lodge`s attempt to pass treaty amendments in September failed, he managed to make 14 “reservations” about it in November. In a final vote on March 19, 1920, the Treaty of Versailles was not ratified by seven votes. Therefore, the U.S.
government signed the Treaty of Berlin on August 25, 1921. This separate peace treaty with Germany stipulated that the United States was to enjoy all “rights, privileges, compensation, reparations, or benefits” granted to it by the Treaty of Versailles, but omitted any mention of the League of Nations, to which the United States never adhered. The main concern of the post-World War II American treaties was security cooperation in a post-war climate characterized by ideological conflicts with the Soviet Union, the bipolarization of the world between these two powers, the destruction of colonial empires and the emergence of nearly ninety new nations, economic inequality and dependence on nuclear weapons as a deterrent. The United States could therefore no longer continue its traditional (moderate and restricted) treaty-making policy. In fact, since 1945, it has signed more treaties (without agreements) than any other nation, and almost all of them were of a new type. These included aid agreements, participation in the United Nations, peace treaties, covenant treaties, deterrence treaties and treaties that address a much wider range of issues than has always been the case: human rights, ecology, environment and resources, global warming, prohibition of chemical weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, access to space and future use of outer space, copyright and protection of intellectual property. and biotechnology and human cloning. IV) A global society free from racial segregation and discrimination, factors that generate hatred and division, is a fundamental objective of the United Nations. .
Part of Ukraine in the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947. Transcarpathia, which had fallen from Hungary to Czechoslovakia in 1944, was ceded to Ukraine in 1945 by an agreement between the Czecho-Soviet government. In 1945, Ukraine became a founding member of the United Nations and subsequently signed peace treaties. Meanwhile, fighting continued in many areas as armed groups pursued nationalist, revolutionary or counter-revolutionary goals. .